Mole (Talpa europaea)

Biology & Habits

Colour – European Mole is silver grey to black in colour. Albino moles have been found

Weight – The adult weighs between 70 and 100 grams

Size – Has small ears with no external flaps. Eyes are small and hidden in the fur. Tail is relatively short and covered in hairs

Litter – There is only 1 litter per year, with size ranging from 2 to 7. Reaches maturity in 5 weeks and average life span is 3 years

Well developed sense of smell allowing for identification of occupied tunnel systems, and in mating season the sex of the occupying mole. Also well developed hearing allowing for detection of predators and presence of other moles in tunnel systems.  Sight is of little use to the mole, however they are able to distinguish between light and dark.

Moles are solitary and live the majority of their lives in the tunnel systems. These are complex permanent or semi-permanent tunnels. Two types of tunnels are created, surface tunnels and deep tunnels.

Surface Tunnels: Visible as a raised edge of soil, just below the surface. This type is common in newly cultivated soil and light, sandy soil. These structures are only short lived and should not be used for trapping.

Deep Tunnels: This is the main system used by the mole to create a nest site in breeding season and an area to catch food such as earthworms.

Mole fortresses may also appear from time to time. These are larger mole hills amongst many smaller mole hills. These are more frequent in areas of high water tables which are liable to flooding.

Food – The main food of the mole is the earthworm. They do also consume other soil invertebrates such as insect larvae and molluscs. Most prey is found within tunnel systems.

The breeding season lasts from February to June. Newborns are fed by the mother for 4 to 5 weeks and after this period they leave the nest to catch food for themselves. They are most vulnerable during this period and fall victim to predatory birds.


Sapphire Pest Management can offer 2 options for treatment:
  • Traps
  • Gassing